Dr. James Cole is a graduate of Princeton University and Columbia University Medical School. He completed his residency at New York Orthopedic Hospital and fellowship in Scoliosis at the Hospital for Special Surgery in New York. He is licensed in New Jersey and New York. He is Board Certified in Orthopedic Surgery - specializing in scoliosis and general orthopedics. Dr. Cole has had numerous articles published and lectures nationally.
Dr. Cole presentation was on Polio.
Polio, or poliomyelitis, is a highly contagious viral infection that can lead to paralysis, breathing problems, or even death. The term poliomyelitis is from the Greek poliós meaning "grey",myelós referencing the spinal cord, and - it is meaning inflammation.
Polio is caused by the poliovirus, a highly contagious virus specific to humans. The virus usually enters the environment in the feces of someone who is infected. In areas with poor sanitation, the virus easily spreads through the fecal-oral route, via contaminated water or food. In addition, direct contact with a person infected with the virus can cause polio.
Dr. Cole spoke about Polio Vaccines.
Two polio vaccines are used throughout the world to combat poliomyelitis (or polio). The first was developed by Jonas Salk and first tested in 1952. Announced to the world by Dr Thomas Francis Junior on April 12, 1955, it consists of an injected dose of inactivated (dead) poliovirus.
Albert Sabin developed an oral vaccine using attenuated poliovirus. Human trials of Sabin's vaccine began in 1957 and it was licensed in 1962. The Jonas Salk vaccine is created from inactive poliovirus, but it is very safe and effective and cannot cause polio. The Albert Sabin vaccine (OPV) is created from a weakened or attenuated form of poliovirus, and it is the vaccine of choice in many countries because of its low cost, ease of administration, and ability to provide excellent immunity in the intestine. OPV, however, has been known to revert to a dangerous form of poliovirus that is able to paralyze its victim.
Dr. Cole presentation was also about the Rotary Polio Plus Program.
The goal of the PolioPlus program is the global certification of polio eradication. In 1988, 10% of the world’s children lived in polio-free countries; as of 1 January 2012, over 90 % are living in polio-free countries.
The number of cases of polio has declined by 99% since Rotary launched the PolioPlus program. A child can be protected against polio for as little as US$ .60 worth of vaccine.
To date, 122 nations around the world have benefited from PolioPlus grants for polio immunization and eradication efforts. By the time the world is certified polio-free, Rotary’s contributions to the global polio eradication effort will exceed US$1.2 billion. More than one million Rotarians worldwide have contributed toward the success of the polio eradication effort to date.
At the start of 2012, transmission of indigenous poliovirus had been interrupted in all but three countries (Nigeria, Pakistan, and Afghanistan).
What will it take to totally eradicate Polio - PERSISTENCE and DETRMINATION.
We are extremely grateful to Dr. Cole for offering his very valuable time in order to attend today’s meeting on this very interesting and important topic.